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AA23 reverted (or OOG)

The validateUserOp function of the smart account either reverted or ran out of gas.

Possible solutions

  • Verify that the verificationGasLimit is high enough to cover the validateUserOp function's gas costs.
  • Verify that the validateUserOp function is implemented with the correct logic, and that the user operation is supposed to be valid.
  • If you are not using a paymaster, verify that the sender address has enough native tokens to cover the required prefund. Consider leveraging functions like getRequiredPrefund.
const requiredPrefund = getRequiredPrefund({
const senderBalance = await publicClient.getBalance({
    address: userOperation.sender
if (senderBalance < requiredPrefund) {
    throw new Error(`Sender address does not have enough native tokens`)
  • If you are looking to use a paymaster to cover the gas fees, verify that the paymasterAndData field is set.
const userOperationHash = await bundlerClient.sendUserOperation({
    paymasterAndData: "0x3b912be0270b59143985cc5c6aab452d99e2b4bb0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000064c0957400000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007d99385d8ef0af67affbf9944df8c121e9d1f6aef8dd82a4aeb5db310c42d3dc5b51c9e0835d94c3b22564d3d94f0e1d14e37571e46651da8de567d128a361a01b", 
    ..., // the rest of the user operation
  • Make sure the signature verification logic of the smart account is implemented correctly. Namely, correct implementations should not revert when the signature is invalid. If you are not looking to use neither time-based signatures nor a signature aggregator, you should simply return uint(1) for invalid signatures in the validateUserOp function.
  • If all else fails, investigate why the validateUserOp function reverted using tools like Tenderly.